New Artwork

Check out one of my latest metal sculptures, a Morgan Horse.


This was a commission from an engineering client I worked with a few years ago, a sculpture for his daughter's room.

Hammered Steel & Copper

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Thor276@cableone.net

FM Synth Programming Guide


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Hi Guys!    Lately I've been working on my synthesizers, mainly my Yamaha FM synths.

Ever wanted to program your FM synth to make a specific instrument sound?  I hunted on the web for a guide, but there aren't any.  Thirty years of FM synths and not one logical guide on how to program them...  

Why is that?

I decided to figure out a method myself and write a 'How-To' manual.  You can download the first revision of the guide below!  It took me months to put together, especially all of the patch examples for each style of synth.

It starts with 4-Operator FM synthesizers, moves up to 6 Operators, covers how to use the 8-Operator FM-X waveforms, then finishes off with a section on Formants and the Yamaha FS1R.  I've included at least a dozen programming examples in the main text, and there are dozens more in the Appendix.  

I'm a very visual, hands-on kinda guy, so the method I teach in the guide should be easier to follow than all of the subjective 'figure it out yourself' stuff you find on the web.

Download  FM Programming Guide v3 9.43MB pdf

I improved the Saxophone FM-X patch and rewrote that part of the programming guide.  It's closer now than it was, the Saxophone takes more high frequency components than any other instrument to sound right.

I also added in a section on the Christina1 voice patch, I finally figured out how to set up a very realistic voice patch on the FS1R!  I used Christina Aguilera's lower voice range as an example.

Cheers!